Early traders from Arabia, Africa, Persia, and the Southern Indian kingdoms reached Kedah before arriving at Guangzhou. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural, religious and … – Ketelaars, Toine “Living apart together – Ethnic Diversity in Dutch Malacca 1640-1690” pp. Malacca was as a major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. Forgot Pasword/Pin? Sakti Bersatu Enterprises, 1994, Melaka, Malaysia. The Dutch had a factory at Bengkalis (1670s) at the mouth of the Siak river (Sumatra). He was the last ruler of ancient Singapore who was of Malay origin. U.S. Merchants from both these regions, Arabs, Indians and Chinese regularly visited. The Strait of Malacca was the shortest path between China and India, and thus was a frequently used trade route. in Dutch Colonialism, Malaysia with illustrated plates and maps, The Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1985, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. On 14 January 1641 the Dutch took possession from the Portuguese of the fortress of Malacca with the help of their ally the Sultan of Johore. Unfortunately, however, the Malacca Sultanate would not last, as the newly powerful Portugal conquered the kingdom in 1511 and began a centuries-long period of European domination. The Malays were confident of a victory with the help of the Dutch, thus regaining the Malacca throne. A short time after the conquest of Malacca the Dutch made trading agreements with several states of the Malay Peninsula to obtain tin (Kedah 1642, Ujung Salang 1643, Bangkeri 1645, Perak). Dutch Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, America. However, to the contrary, the VOC wanted the monopoly for all goods. In the year 1509 the first Portuguese trading expedition, commanded by Diego Lopez de Sequiera , … In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. Written by Marco Ramerini. In February 1757 reinforcements arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to drop the siege. “The siege and capture of Malacca from the Portuguese in 1640-1641” JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. For this reason a Dutch outpost was established in Perak, but in 1651 the garrison was killed and the outpost destroyed by the Malays. – Sta Maria, Joseph “Undi nos by di aki? In the 1700s Johore was a powerful force on the Straits. In 1660 even the factory established at Ujung Salang was abandoned. Other ethnic groups also contributed to making Malacca a cosmopolitan port. Send your feedback to, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). With these agreements the prosperity of Malacca was improved. State energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. one Edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. Malacca trade was flourishing, but a new sea power appeared on the scene: the British. Several proposals have been made to increase bypass options and reduce tanker traffic through the Strait of Malacca. Malacca rose from a humble fishing village to become a major center of the spice trade forming a vital link between the East and the West. 87-106, 1961, Lisbon, Portugal. From here they controlled the tin trade. In fact, the earliest written records of the country made reference to the Malacca Peninsula, instead of the Malay Peninsula or … Finally I am passionate about astronomy. The history of the Sultanate of Malacca every year (1402-1528). Malacca trade was flourishing, but a new sea power appeared on the scene: the British. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia Far East: China, Taiwan (Formosa), Japan. After a nice delicious lunch, let's go for a little … Exactly 508 years ago a thriving city on the western coast of the Malay Peninsula became the axis upon which history spun toward a new direction. – Andaya, Barbarba Watson “Melaka under the Dutch 1641-1795”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital ca. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Indonesia. By the 1660s the trade in Dutch Malacca was in decline and the relations with the Malay states had deteriorated as well. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca). One of the most important highways of trade in the pre-modern world was the Strait of Malacca. I research and write about history. In 1710 the St. Peter’s Church is built. Sultanate of Malacca, (1403?–1511), Malay dynasty that ruled the great entrepôt of Malacca (Melaka) and its dependencies and provided Malay history with its golden age, still evoked in idiom and institutions. The biggest importers of LNG in the region are Japan and South Korea. The Malaccan sultanate, and the city it centered on, was founded in around 1400 by Iskandar Shah, fleeing the destruction of Singapore by Majapahit forces. – Lewis, Dianne “Jan compagnie in the Straits of Malacca 1641-1795” 176 pp. In 1824 the Anglo-Dutch Treaty or the Treaty of London was signed between the Dutch and the British. In 1405, Yongle Emperor of Ming Dynasty (r. 1402–1424) sent his envoy headed by Yin Qing to Malacca. Then in 1786 a British base was established in Penang. In fact the city’s prosperity was supported by free trade. The duty collected of their Siak trade was an important share of Malacca’s revenue. Malacca History Dubbed Malaysia’s unofficial historic capital, Malacca – declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2008 – is one of the country’s most unassuming states. In particular, China and Myanmar (Burma) commissioned the Myanmar-China natural gas pipeline in 2013 that stretches from Myanmar's ports in the Bay of Bengal to the Yunnan province of China. The rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arabian and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. Walk Up to St. Paul's Church and to the Famosa Fort. The founder and first ruler of Malacca, Paramesvara (d. 1424, Malacca), a Sumatran prince who had fled his native Palembang under Javanese attack, established himself briefly in Tumasik (now Singapore) and settled in Malacca in the last years of the 14th century or early in the 15th. Midway along the straits that linked China to India and the Near East, Malacca was perfectly positioned as a center for maritime trade. Indian, Arab, and European merchants regularly visited there, and the Portuguese realized enormous profits from the especially lucrative spice trade that passed through the port. Founded by a martial prince generations prior, Malacca flourished from the trade between China and the Middle East, its location was such that the single narrow body of water… In those years it was rumored that the Dutch might leave the city. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia. Index: The Dutch conquest and its aftermath, the crisis with Johor 1700-1718, the Dutch company and the Bugis opting for neutrality, Dutch alliance with Malays, neutrality revisited, neutrality abandoned: the Dutch capture of Riau, the VOC’s “forward movement” in the Straits of Malacca. map, Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1995, Athens, Ohio, USA. Christ Church in … It is still the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia. The Dutch had treaties with the Johore Sultans to get rid of the Portuguese. Subscribe to feeds for updates on EIA products including Today in Energy and What's New. In raw terms, passage through the Straits of Malacca amounts to around ... possible that India would not be comfortable with a major Chinese capability located in the area to protect its trade route. colour plates Oxford Paperbacks, 1997, Singapore. Index: The occupation of the Straits of Malacca 1636-1639, the siege and the capture of Malacca 1640-1641, commissary Justus Schouten’s report of his visit to Malacca 1641. The Strait of Malacca became an important maritime trade route between India and China. During their rule the British demolished the fortress of Malacca. Yet in the summer of 1511 a small fleet of Portuguese carracks blockaded its port and effected a siege. There are no specific guidelines. The Strait of Malacca is the shortest shipping route between the Far East and the Indian Ocean. All rights reserved. Principal contributors: Lejla Villar, Mason Hamilton, Tags: The trade at Siak was vital for Malacca and for the Malacca Freeburghers community, a community of Dutch and Portuguese descendants intermarried with the local people. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Oil shipments through the Strait of Malacca supply China and Indonesia, two of the world's fastest growing economies. The strait derived its name from the trading port of Melaka (formerly Malacca)—which was of importance in the 16th and 17th centuries—on the Malay coast. Where do we go from here ? From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Dutch Colonial Empire. For this reason a Dutch outpost was established from 1670 to 1690 at Teluk Gedung on pulau Pangkor. Yin Qing's visit opened the way for the establishment of friendly relations between Malacca and China. Reserves, production, prices, employment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Because of the city’s long and varied past, there are as many different ways to spell Malacca, you will see most commonly Malacca and Melaka. Energy & Financial Markets: What Drives Crude Oil Prices? Straits Settlements, former British crown colony on the Strait of Malacca, comprising four trade centres, Penang, Singapore, Malacca, and Labuan, established or taken over by the British East India Company.The British settlement at Penang was founded in 1786, at Singapore in 1819; Malacca, occupied by the British during the Napoleonic Wars, was transferred to the East India Company in 1824. The Sultanate of Johore (the Dutch ally during the siege of Portuguese Malacca) took advantage of all this by opening his seaport of Riau (an Indonesian island near Singapore) to all ships and to all types of commerce. In the 1720s a new power appeared on the scene: the Bugis. – Andaya, Leonard Yuzon “The Kingdom of Johore 1641-1728: a study of economic and political developments on the Straits of Malacca” 458 pp. From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. WIC (West-Indische Compagnie), Australia and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), India. The founder and first ruler of Malacca, Paramesvara (d. 1424, Malacca), a Sumatran prince who had fled his native Palembang under Javanese attack, established himself briefly in Tumasik (now … A good book on Malacca/Dutch history. Their leader Daeng Kamboja made Linggi his base and from October 1756 till July 1757 besieged Dutch Malacca. Southeast Asia scholars see the founding of Sultanate Melaka as port and polity in 1402/03 facilitating a centralization of trade after the vacuum created by the polycentric Srivijaya empire’s decline which had fragmented the related Bay of Bengal world between 1300 and 1400. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, South East Asia and the Far East. Malacca trade quickly declined after the Dutch conquest. The Rise of Malacca. A detailed historical research. Then the site www.borghiditoscana.net dedicated to my region: Tuscany. This fort was reoccupied by the Dutch in 1746 and later the same year the fort was moved upstream to Tanjung Putus. This web site was first on line on 3 October 1998 (at geocities.com as "Dutch Portuguese Colonial History"). Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Cornell University, 1971, – Arasaratnam, S. “Dutch commercial policy and interests in the Malay peninsula, 1750-1795” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. A shipwrecked Portuguese Galleon, The abortive expedition of Don Juan de Silva against the Dutch in the East Indies (1612-1616), Recife Forts: Fort do Brum, Fort das Cinco Pontas, Recife: the capital of sugar cane of Colonial Brazil, Fort Orange (Oranje), Itamaracá: a Dutch fortress in Brazil, Dutch in Chile: Hendrick Brouwer’s expedition to Valdivia, Dutch New York: The Dutch settlements in North America, Dutch and Courlanders on Tobago. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Arabia and Persian Gulf. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary reporting, electric power plant emissions. Kedah served as a western port on the Malay Peninsula. The oil portion of the pipeline was completed in August 2014, and it is now operational at full capacity. The birthplace of the Malay Sultanates and Malaysia’s historic city, Melaka provided the stage on which the Portuguese, Dutch and English played out their roles in shaping the history. Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. On 9 April 1825 the Dutch ceded Malacca. Kunlun or Malay sailors were known in China by the third century BC, and there is evidence that had begun to settle along East African coast by the first century CE. Regional energy information including dashboards, maps, data, and analyses. In 1746 the Sultan of Johore gave the Siak Kingdom to the VOC as a gift. Perak was the main tin producing kingdom on the whole peninsula and the VOC was interested in controlling its trade. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). 159-189. 1 (1936) pp 1-176. 20 A very interesting paper with various information on the numerical and ethnical composition of Dutch Malacca. They were and are the main ethnic group of the south-western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes). After the Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar several groups of Bugis emigrated from Makassar (Sulawesi) and settled near Malacca in the 1710s. Malacca’s decline was also due to the fact that, while under the Portuguese rule the city was only behind Goa the main Portuguese base in the east. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Forms EIA uses to collect energy data including descriptions, links to survey instructions, and additional information. International energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. In 1818 after the Napoleonic Wars Malacca is restored by the British to the Dutch under the Treaty of Vienna. To prevent a British occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and on 29 October 1784 the Bugis were defeated. Dutch Ceylon, Trincomalee: Bibliography. To prevent a British occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and on 29 October 1784 the Bugis were defeated. At its narrowest point in the Phillips Channel of the Singapore Strait, the Strait of Malacca is only about 1.7 miles wide, creating a natural bottleneck with the potential for collisions, grounding, or oil spills. Between 1753 and 1760 the Christ Church in Malacca was built. It has been a strategic trading post for the incredibly profitable spice trade for nearly a thousand years, and hotly contested, changing hands many times throughout history. As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language, literature and arts. The capital, Malacca, was for a brief period in the 13th to 14th century one of the greatest trading cities in the world, and it is today a city of remarkable historical and cultural interest. During the Napoleonic wars the Dutch Governor surrendered Malacca to the British East India Company in August 1795. My e-mail is at the bottom of the page. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Its inauguration marked the beginning of the emergence of a new Malay empire. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2005-2016, Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, through 2017, State Energy Data System: Motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, and fuel ethanol through 2019, State Energy Portal: Updated Analyses and Quick Facts, Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production ›, Midwest and Rocky Mountain Transportation Fuels Markets, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets, The Strait of Malacca, a key oil trade chokepoint, links the Indian and Pacific Oceans. During the period of Dutch rule Malacca had a garrison of usually less than 550 Dutchmen. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, The Portuguese in Bassein (Baçaim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India, The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Portuguese Empire: Africa, America and Asia maps, The Russians in America: Alaska and California, A Portuguese fort in Madagascar: the fort near Tolanaro, The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Tidore: The Spanish forts on the island of Tidore, 1606-1663, South East Asia and in Far East Asia. During the 16th century Malacca developed into the most important trading port in Southeast Asia. St. Peter ’ s prosperity was supported by free trade Siak Kingdom to the History of geographical and. Of LNG in the 1720s a new power appeared on the numerical and ethnical composition Dutch... Rembau were ceded to the contrary, the Malaysian branch of the world free and data! 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