was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield. The Romans had two Roman and two allied legions (20,000 legionary infantry, 2,000 velites, 2,500 equites, and 200 war elephants), plus a substantial contingent of 1,200 Epirote light infantry, 800 Cretan archers, and 6,000 infantry and 400 cavalry from the Aetolian League. If matters had concluded right there, the result would have been indecisive with the loss of a wing on each side. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. Philip's influence within Greece was now forever broken and he was essentially confined thereafter within Macedonia itself. In 197 BC the Roman army of Titus Quinctius Flamininus, with his allies from the Aetolian League, marched out towards Pherae in search of Philip, who was at Larissa. Battle of Cynoscephalae - Deployment. battle of Cynoscephalae synonyms, battle of Cynoscephalae pronunciation, battle of Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae. Cynoscephalae - Romans vs. Macedonians. Pelopidas †. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. (en) 25بك المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. You take the role of the Roman army as it moves to defeat the Macedonian army of King Philip V of Macedon. This assertion has been challenged by some who point out that the Romans were only able to attain victory by taking advantage of the fact that the Macedonian left wing was not fully formed, although this is also given as evidence of the phalanx's unwieldy nature when compared to the legion. The end of 198 BC saw the Roman army of Titus Flaminius withdraw for the winter as King Philip V of Macedon raised a new army which included both youths and old men. He had the elephants followed by his right wing go uphill against the enemy's left wing. This was the first time Roman legions were victorious over a Macedonian phalanx. Philip had 16,000 sarissa-wielding phalangists, 2,000 agema peltasts, 4,000 Illyrian and Thracian mercenaries, 1,500 Greek hoplite mercenaries, and 2,000 Thessalian and Macedonian cavalry. The battle of Cynoscephalae. Now surrounded by both wings of the Roman legion, they suffered heavy casualties and fled. Meanwhile, Philip's phalanx had reached the summit, and after joining with their light troops and cavalry which he placed on his right wing, Philip had his phalanx charge down the hill into the oncoming legionaries. Flamininus concentrated his attack on Nicanor and the Macedonian left. For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC). Flaminius sent 2,000 Aetolian infantry and 500 cavalry to the ridge as reinforcements, and the Antigonid skirmishing force slowly withdrew to the top of the ridge and requested aid from Philip. On the arrival of the Aetolians, 'at speed he broke camp', moved into Phthiotic territory where he was joined by a force of Cretans and 'not so much later' by Amynander and his Athamanian troops, and headed for Phthiotic Thebes. They were easily routed and pursued. The Greek city-states, led by Athens, appealed to Rome for help. The general on the Roman side was Titus Quinctius Flaminius. Philip's right wing was now on higher ground than the Roman left, and was at first successful against them. After breaking through and gaining ground, one of the Roman tribunes in command, stationed on the inside edge of the now advanced Roman right wing, on his own authority, detached twenty maniples (a smaller tactical unit within the legion) of heavy infantry, in total numbering about 2,000 men, spun them around and led them to the left and back to attack the Macedonian center and left wing – from behind and the side. Philip was unable to gather his men, and he fled the battlefield as the Romans butchered the remaining Macedonians. Philip's skirmishers were sent to the ridge's summit to get a better view, but they met ten Roman cavalry squadrons and 1,000 velites, and both forces skirmished before informing their commanders of the other army's positions. After a brief pursuit, Flamininus allowed Philip to escape. Generals. Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC): | | |For the later, and better-known battle fought here, see |Battle of Cynoscephal... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The Antigonid skirmishers then urged the King to attack while momentum was on their side, and the Macedonian army deployed in battle order. Hammond, "The Campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC" in Journal of Hellenic Studies 108 (1988) Polybius, Histories, Bk XVIII.19-27. Cynoscephalae (Greek Kynos kephalai, literally “dogs’ heads”), a range of hills in Thessaly (Greece), northwest of Thebes. A Roman tribune halted 20 maniples (2,500 veteran triarii troops) on the right wing and marched his contingent across the ridge to strike the victorious phalanx of Philip from the rear as it attacked the left; the veteran legionaries then renewed their assault. In an unexpected encounter, the more flexible Roman force drew out the Macedonian phalanx and used the terrain to break it … Philip, though reluctant to send his phalanx into the broken, hilly terrain eventually ordered an assault with half the phalanx, 8,000 men, when he heard of the Roman retreat. The phalangists, who were not deployed rigidly, were crushed, and many were killed outright or chased away by the legionaries. The battle was decisive, leading to Rome's crushing victory over Philip V of Macedon. In any case, the result of the battle of Cynoscephalae was a fatal blow to the political aspirations of the Macedonian kingdom; Macedonia would never again be in a position to challenge Rome's geopolitical expansion. Besides the usual Roman troops and auxiliary units that would appear in any Roman army Flamininus's forces also included soldiers from the allied Aetolian League, light infantry from Athamania, mercenary archers from Crete, and elephants and Numi… On the ridge of Cynoscephalae hills met for first light infantry units of the two armies, while the bulk of the troops was still in march and was converging towards the battlefield. Third Macedonian War. Hammond, "The Campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC" in, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 23:39. The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. The Roman right attacked the Macedonians and were more successful than the Roman left. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a drawn battle in which Pelopidas was killed. The battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history. Born in 228 BC, he had been a military tribune in the Second Punic War. The Roman victory in the Battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the Second Macedonian War between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon.The battle is considered one of the best examples of manipular Roman legion superiority over the Macedonian phalanx in … The Battle of Cynoscephalae by pallin. When Flamininus began his march to Larisa he had under his command about 32,500 to 33,400 soldiers. The battle on the hills grew fierce and Flamininus sent 500 cavalry and 2,000 infantry as reinforcements, mostly Aetolians, forcing Philip's men to withdraw further up the hill. 14 Kromayer 114 dated the battle to the end of May or beginning of June. Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 B.C. Thessaly. Illyrian Wars. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 BC, settled once and for all the age-old dispute of phalanx versus legionary warfare. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη των Κυνός Κεφαλών) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. The next year, the Theban general Epaminondas avenged the defeat by a victory over Alexander.. Theban Hegemony, Cynoschephale. Battle of Cynoscephalae.webm 20 s, 1,156 × 810; 2.52 MB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-1 faza.png 275 × 281; 21 KB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-2 faza.png 296 × 281; 20 KB Half of Philip's troops were still foraging, so he sent his general Nicanor the Elephant to follow up when the others had returned. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. After Roman scouts spotted the Macedonians, Titus Flaminius and his army marched north from Boeotia, hoping to intercept Philip before he could withdraw. Philip V of Macedon had attacked Rome's client states in the Mediterranean for 20 years. After that he slowly ascended the cursus honorum. Philip also had to pay 1,000 talents of silver to Rome, disband his navy, most of his army, and send his son to Rome as a hostage. Meaning of battle of cynoscephalae. Battle of the Second Macedonian War, where the Romans and the Aetolian League defeat Macedon, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Cynoscephalae&oldid=995051403, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Information and translations of battle of cynoscephalae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Events by cover : Works (3) Titles: Order: Roman Conquests: Macedonia and Greece by Philip Matyszak: SPQR by Richard H. Berg: Taken at the Flood: The Roman Conquest of Greece by Robin Waterfield: Related events. Coordinates: 39°21′36″N 22°49′48″E  /  39.36°N 22.83°E  / The mercenaries (except the Thracians) were commanded by Athenagoras and the second infantry corps by Nicanor the Elephant. Although the peace that followed allowed Philip to keep his kingdom intact, Flamininus proclaimed that other Greek states previously under Macedonian domination were now free. N.G.L. Previous warning of Either the Romans did not understand this signal, or they just ignored it. The Battle of Cynoscephalae is a battle that took place in 197 BC. Despite this, Philip resumed his march, and his troops became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog. First Macedonian War. : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. The Macedonian phalangites were unable to re-position themselves and form up to face this new attack as quickly as the Roman maniples could maneuver to exploit the opportunity. Flaminius advanced with the left side of his line to reinforce the battle between the scouting parties, forcing the Macedonians to retreat up the slope; many were killed, while others fled back towards their King. It was also the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek spear phalanx and the Roman sword legion. Two hills of southeast Thessaly in northeast Greece. Philip sent 3,500 cavalry and mercenary infantry to reinforce his skirmishers, and they pushed the Romans back down the slope and almost routed them completely, had it not been for the strategic skirmishing and harassment by the Aetolian allies. Flaminius was also being pushed back towards the Roman camp, so he rode over to the Roman right and ordered them to charge at the disorganized Macedonians under Nicanor, most of whom were still arriving or not yet formed up. noun 1. the fields in Thessaly where in 197 BC the Romans defeated the Macedonians • Instance Hypernyms: ↑region, ↑part • Part Holonyms: ↑Thessalia, ↑Thessaly 2. the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip At Cynoscephalae the Macedonian's and their Greek allies suffered 10,000 dead and 5,000 taken prisoner compared to 5,000 Roman casualties. The sunrise led to the fog dissipating, but Flaminius' men were demoralized at the sight of their men retreating. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Alexander of Pherae. The combat engaged about 26,000 men on each side. He abandoned his part and attacked the rear of the Macedonian right wing, taking twenty maniples. The Roman victory was achieved through the initiative of a tribune, whose name is unknown. Cynoscephalae (197 BCE) Battle of Cynoscephalae: decisive battle during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), in which the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V. In 204, the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy IV Philopator died, leaving behind a very young successor, Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Flamininus saw his only hope was attacking the Macedonian left. The Roman legions on the left did not break, and fought fiercely. External links Each commander knew that their counterpart was close, but the fog caused disorientation among the two armies. The Roman left was chewed up by the bristling pike wall, and Nicanor's army began to crest the ridge on the King's left flank in a rushed marching formation. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. In 201 BC, Rome won the Second Punic War against Carthage. There was a chance encounter between the advance groups of both armies at the summit near the pass. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Battle of Cynoscephalae Area Today A map of the area around the battle positions Battle of Cynoscephalae summary. Finally becoming consul in 198 BC, Flaminius was underage for the position. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, fought in 197 B.C., ended the second of Rome’s four Macedonian Wars, securing a place in history for the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, checking the power of the Antigonid King Philip V, and imposing a brutal peace that laid the groundwork for the Third Macedonian War against Philip’s son Perseus. Philip then sent a small force to take the Cynoscephalae Hills (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}39°25′N 22°34′E / 39.417°N 22.567°E / 39.417; 22.567Coordinates: 39°25′N 22°34′E / 39.417°N 22.567°E / 39.417; 22.567). It features in Rome: Total War as a historical battle. Definition of battle of cynoscephalae in the Definitions.net dictionary. According to Polybius and Livy, 8,000 Macedonians had been killed. Livy mentions that other sources claim 32,000 Macedonians were killed and even one writer who due to "boundless exaggeration" claims 40,000 but concludes that Polybius is the trustworthy source on this matter. Battle of Cynoscephalae Part of the Second Macedonian War Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus entered Macedon with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King Philip V in the Second Macedonian War. The Macedonian left wing had arrived on the summit. The phalanx drove the Romans down the slope. During the march there was a heavy rainstorm, and the morning after there was a fog over the hills and fields separating both camps. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. They approached from opposite sides. The two armies met at the sloping ridge of Cynoscephalae in Thessaly. Philip marched the head of his phalanx up the slope, screened by his peltasts and flanked on the right by cavarly. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a battle in which Pelopidas was killed; nevertheless, the Thebans won. By the spring of 197 BC, Philip's army stopped to forage for supplies near Pharae in the south. Now that the battle was balanced, Flamininus sent his elephants charging into the phalangites, and they panicked. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. He left his right wing in reserve, with his elephants in front, and personally led the left wing against Philip. For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC). Flaminius ordered his entire army to form up in battle order and addressed his troops at the base of the slope, professing to them that they had fought and beaten the Macedonians before. The right half of the Macedonian phalanx was formed in double depth and they advanced downhill against the Roman left wing. THE CAMPAIGN AND THE BATTLE OF CYNOSCEPHALAE IN I97 BC 63 Aetolians' (xxxiii 3.8-9). The Thessalian cavalry was led by Heracleides of Gyrton, the Macedonian cavalry by Leon. Historica Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. T. Quinctius Flamininus, with his allies from the Aetolian League, were stationed at Thebes, and marched out towards Pherae in search of Philip, who was at Larisa. The battle of Cynoscephalae perfectly represent what in military terms is called "encounter battle". The phalangists charged downhill at the unprepared Romans, and the remnants of Flaminius' scouting force were unprepared and were forced back. [2] Flamininus also took 5,000 prisoners. A group of Macedonian phalangists raised their pikes to the sky to surrender, but the furious legionaries charged in and massacred all of them. It is generally perceived that with the later Battle of Pydna, this defeat demonstrated the superiority of the Roman legion over the Macedonian phalanx. Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos.It was the site of the victory (197 bc) that ended the Second Macedonian War when the Romans under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated Philip V of Macedon. 15 Livy's statement is vague. Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. As the Roman left was slowly being driven back, Flamininus took command of his right and ordered an assault there. Define battle of Cynoscephalae. Events: Battle of Cynoscephalae. For 300 years cavalry used in concert with the spear phalanx had dominated Western battlefields. However Philip's left wing and center, commanded by Nicanor, never managed to form up properly. The Romans only lost 700 dead (mostly on their brave left), while the Antigonids lost 8,000 dead and 5,000 captured. The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. In an unexpected encounter, the more flexible Roman force drew out the Macedonian phalanx and used the terrain to break it up before closing to attack from the front and from both flanks. Philip had about 26,000 men of which 16,000 were phalangites, 2,000 light infantry, 5,500 mercenaries and allies from Crete, Illyria, Thrace, plus 2,000 cavalry. https://historica.fandom.com/wiki/Battle_of_Cynoscephalae?oldid=259200. There was complete panic in the Macedonian ranks. He therefore postulated up to a month's delay (111); it was accepted by Walbank in his Philip 322, but less firmly in his Commentary, p. 579. The Roman victory … Cynoscephalae, fought in Thessaly in spring 197 bce, marked the decisive and final battle of the Second Macedonian War. The Romans lost about 700 killed. They were still in column formation and thrown into disorder. Flamininus had about 25,500 men, thus subdivided: 16,000 legionary infantry, 8,400 light infantry, 1,800 cavalry and 20 war elephants; further it included soldiers from the allied Aetolian League, light infantry from Athamania, and mercenary archers from Crete. Commanders and leaders. Philip now sent more men into the melee, his Macedonian and Thessalian cavalry, who drove the Romans down the hill, until the Aetolian cavalry stabilized the situation. The Macedonians raised their sarissas as a symbol of surrender. Flamininus positioned his troops on the field as well. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC between the armies of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War. This intuitive maneuver caused the inflexible phalanx to fragment, and many of its phalangists were killed. Cynoscephalae synonyms, Cynoscephalae pronunciation, Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of Cynoscephalae. N.G.L. The two armies both marched up the slope without knowing the other army's intentions, and both armies came into view of one another at the top of the hill. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC between the armies of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War. What does battle of cynoscephalae mean? Battle of Pydna. The Antigonid and Roman cavalry clashed on the wing as the light infantry skirmished, but the main clash was in the center. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. 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